Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The article presents the analysis of influence of neurodynamic and personal features on the safety and reliability of driving. An analysis of a number of accidents (road accidents) was performed, the psychophysiological diagnostics included the assessment of the main properties of the nervous system, psychodynamic characteristics and personal features according to the scales of the MMPI questionnaire. Data on 608 people characterizing the functional condition of the nervous system, the personal and psychodynamic features allowing to distinguish three groups have been studied: The 1st group is the drivers who have not violated the traffic rules; the 2nd group is the drivers who have violated the trafflc rules once during the year; the 3rd group is the drivers who have violated the traffic rules 4 or more times. Among the indicators characterizing neurodynamic functions the most reliable distinctions in the operability of a brain and degrees of expressiveness of exciting and inhibitory processes and motive and coordination sensomotor reactions have been found. These results are important when developing the approaches concerning safe behavior on the roads, and also when organizing work and optimizing the process of training of future motor vehicle drivers.

Ключевые слова:
Neurodynamic and personal features, drivers, trafic safety
Science Evolution, 2017, vol. 2, no. 170Table 3. Psychophysiological indicators of the drivers who have violated the trafc rules and provided road accidentsParameters1st group of drivers2nd group ofdrivers3rd group ofdriversР < 0.05Extraversion-introversion, point 13.5 ± 0.2 14.4 ± 0.3 14.8 ± 0.7 1-2,1-3Simple sensorimotor reaction, ms 245.1 ± 4.4 281.6 ± 4.5 347.6 ± 24.7 1-3, 2-3Complex sensorimotor reaction, ms 476.7 ± 4.9 473.5 ± 6.9 514.5 ± 18.8 2-3Working capacity of a brain, quantity of signals / 5 minutes549.3 ± 4.3 538.5 ± 5.0 513.8 ± 25.0 2-3Stability of nervous processes, reaction of excitement, ms 27.3 ± 2.0 32.8 ± 4.3 34.5 ± 1.6 1-3Stability of nervous processes (delay reaction), ms 35.3 ± 1.9 43.0 ± 5.8 48.1 ± 2.4 1-2, 1-3Table 2. Distribution of the drivers with various levels of functional agility of nervous processes who have violated the trafc rules and have provided road accidentsType of workLevel of functional agility of nervous processesPercentage of driversCommitted no violationsCommitted 1 violationCommitted 4 and more violationsAuto enthusiasts(n = 184)High (n = 48) 8 24 15Middle (n = 96) 24 46 28Below the middle value (n = 40) 50 23 27Taxi drivers(n = 214)High (n = 87) 10 25 36Middle (n = 101) 36 43 19Below the middle value (n = 26) 34 22 44City bus drivers (n = 210)High (n = 79) 16 21 13Middle (n = 83) 25 23 9Below the middle value (n = 38) 34 14 25Figure 2 provides the personality prole of the drivers who have repeatedly committed offenses on the roads with serious consequences of road accidents. The combination of scales of the MMPI for this prole with the increased values of the scales Hs, D and Si indicates a tendency to slow reactions, thinking rigidity, obstinacy and petulance. The high values of the factors A and Pt and the low values of the factors Sf and R testify to lack of self-condence, passivity, angst and the weakness of will qualities. Even the persons with wide driving experience with such a combination of scales make mistakes if their profession deals with driving, be it a plane or a car [13; 10; 14].Fig. 1. Personality prole of the drivers who have not committed any offenses when driving.80706050403020100Points L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si A Ja Es Re Sf R Scales Science Evolution, 2017, vol. 2, no. 171Table 4. Interrelation of success of activity of drivers with personal featuresScale of the MMPI Correlation coefcientHs (hypochondria) -0.18 (p < 0.001)D (depression) -0.34 (p < 0.001)Hy (hysteria) -0.17 (p < 0.001)Mf (interest scale) 0.05 (p = 0.1091)Pa (suspiciousness) 0.12 (p = 0.002)Pt (psychasthenia) -0.26 (p < 0.001)Sc (schizoidness) -0.18 (p < 0.001)Fig. 2. Personality prole of the drivers who have repeatedly committed offenses when driving.At the same time it should be noted that in some cases a different level of expressiveness of scales of the MMPI with the same type of tendency of values is observed in the persons working without violations. To make a quantitative assessment of dependence of success of activity of the person on the degree of expressiveness of these or those scales of the MMPI, a multiple correlation analysis method has been used. The highest level of interrelation of success of activity of drivers is noted: with the scale D - a tendency towards depression, Hs - a tendency towards hypochondria, Pt - a tendency towards psychasthenia. The highest coefficient of interrelation of success of motor vehicle driving for the scale D (r =-0.34). This scale estimates the presence of symptoms of depression in the examined person which is shown in self-dissatisfaction, pessimism, depression and mental block. In such persons (with high values on this scale) inclinations, motives and will activity are sharply lowered, their behavior is characterized by slowness of reactions, lack of initiative and fast fatigue. The analysis of interrelation of indicators of success of driving and the degree of expressiveness of psychophysiological and personal qualities can be used in the professional selection of drivers and when training in driving schools. In particular, a possibility to determine the professional suitability of motor vehicle drivers according to the indicators of functional agility and strength of nervous processes, of the level of development of psychophysiological functions, according to the degree of expressiveness of a number of personal qualities has been shown.Thus, the study performed by us allows to estimate the efficiency and reliability of the modelled and real activity of motor vehicle drivers on the basis of a complex of research works and their separate trends concerning the assessment, diagnostics and prediction of psychophysiological opportunities (reserves) at all the stages of professional cycle, particular persons and various categories of personnel for the optimum and effective control of states of professional activity, traffic safety and the health of workers
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